Non-Destructive Analysis of Miniaturized Fusion Materials Samples and Irradiation Capsules
by X-ray Micro-Tomography


Goal: to provide an universal tool for the NDT analysis of fusion material samples (both structural and tritium breeders) before and after various tests (including irradiation).
Image acquisition, reconstruction and analysis software
Beam hardening reduction by linearization of the non-linear dependence of the radiologic path
  • Beam hardening artifact consists of an elevated density displayed on the perimeter of a uniform density probe and a corresponding density depression in the probe’s core region.
  • Caused by the polychromatic structure of the energy spectrum of the X-ray generators.
  • Beam hardening effects are the main challenge for the application of the microtomography technique to the NDT analysis of the metallic samples.
Significant residual beam hardening artifact
even after filtering the X-ray spectrum
with 1.0 mm copper foil
Applying the linearization correction of the
transmission curve a substantial reduction of the
density depression in the probe’s core region.

Slice-by-slice tomography configuration
used in our fully 3D Monte Carlo simulations

Spectrum of incident X-ray beam on the
sample from a tungsten transmission target
irradiated with a 100 keV electron beam
was filtered by 0.6 mm Cu plate.

Measured points represent the energy deposition
into a 0.4 mm thick CsI scintillator for the above
X-ray spectrum in steel probes of different thickness. Linear curve is obtained by multiplication of the
spectrum-averaged attenuation coefficient
of steel with the thickness of the probe.
IFMIF High Flux Test Module: dummy irradiation capsule
Radiography Reconstruction
The transversal cross-section (insert) shows heating alloy wires
introduced inside of two out of three bronze pipes
Miniaturized samples
BGA (Ball Grid Array) sample: soldering balls of 0.4 mm are arrayed in a matrix with pitch of 0.6 mm
Oblique view cone-beam tomography Oblique view radiography

Radiography   Density      Sagital          

SUS traction probe 2 mm diamete

Calibration sample:
Cu tube 2.2 mm, Ag central wire 0.5 mm and coiled kanthal wires 0.18 and 0.08 mm


Steel silphon of 6.5 mm

Compressed pebble bed
3-D tomography reconstruction insert: frontal
cross-sections of the bottom zone showing
pebbles in contact with the steel plate

Frontal cross-section (top) axial cross-sections through contact area between steel plate and aluminum pebbles (bottom-left) and through middle of bottom layer of aluminum pebbles (bottom-right)
Sample from repository host rock

Porosity characteristics; minimum detectable feature of 5 µm

Segmentation data as most accurate boundary conditions for advanced simulation of fluid flow in porous media